DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

(Kalimat Langsung dan Tak Langsung)

Ada beberapa perubahan yang mungkin atau harus kita buat kalau kita mengubah kalimat langsung (direct speech) menjadi kalimat tak langsung (indirect speech). Hal-hal yang mungkin atau harus berubah itu adalah pronoun (kata-kata ganti), adverb of time (keterangan waktu), adverb of place (keterangan tempat dan tense kalau pengantar ucapan (introductory part) –nya berbentuk past tense.
Beberapa perubahan tersebut dapat dirumuskan sbb:
Tense, seperti

Direct Speech
becomes

Indirect Speech
1.      Simple Present Tense
becomes
Simple Past Tense
2.      Present Continous Tense (Present Progressive T)
becomes
Past Continous Tense (Past Progressive Tense)
3.      Present Future Tense
becomes
Past Future Tense
4.      Simple Past Tense
becomes
Past Perfect Tense
5.      Present Perfect Tense
becomes
Past Perfect Tense


Adverb od Time, seperti:
now                à        then
today              à        that day
yesterday      à        the previous day (the day before)
last week       à        the previous week (the week before)
tomorrow      à        the next day (the day after)
next week      à        the following week

Demonstrative Pronoun / Adjective :
this                 à        that
these               à        these

Pronoun seperti I, You, He dan yang sejenisnya tidak dapat dirumuskan, dengan singkat. Hal ini sangat tergantung dari siapa dan kepada siapa ucapan itu dimaksudkan.

Examples
  1. DS:   I said to Andy, “I can help you now.” pd waktu itu
      IS:     I said to Andy that I could help him then.
2.     DS:   I said to Lisa, “I saw you yesterday.”
      IS:     I said to Lisa that I had seen her the day before.
3.     DS:   He said to me, “I have found your key.”
      IS:     He said to me that he had found my key.
4.     DS:   He said, “This is your book.”
      IS:     He said that That was my book.
5.     DS:   He said to Lucya, “I’m going to meet you this morning.”
      IS:     He said to Lucya that she was going to meet her that morning.
6.     DS:   She said to Andy, “I shall not meet you today.”
      IS:     She said to Andy that she should not meet him that day.
7.     DS:   She said to Wati, “I cannot help you tomorrow.
      IS:     She said to Wati that she could not help her the next day.

Contoh yang pengantarnya tidak berbentuk past tense.
1.      DS:   I say to him, “I am always ready to help you.”
 IS:     I say to him that I am always ready to help him.
2.      DS:   He says to me, “I write two letters to her every month.”
 IS:     He says to me that he writes two letter to her every month.
3.      DS:   He will say to Susi, “I really understand you.”
 IS:     He will say to Susi that he really understands her.
4.      DS:   She has said to me, “I am really fond of writing letters.”
 IS:     She has said to me that she is really fond of writing letters.
5.      DS:   I always say, “I will never break my promise.”
 IS:     I always say that I will never break my promise.

Note:  kata that boleh ada boleh tidak
          dalam bahasa tulis biasanya lebih sering dimuat

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